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The White Monk - I
National Museum Wales, Cardiff
Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782) and Studio
The White Monk - I
[Early 1760s?]
Oil on canvas
44.4 x 59.7 cm
17 1/2 x 23 1/2 in.
NMW A 5202
In the foreground two lovers are seated on the grass under a parasol. On the left is a prominent boulder, against which rests a stick. There are two large trees and a sapling on the right and in the left middle distance, a wooded cliff and promontory, on the edge of which is silhouetted a wayside cross with religious figures before it. A hilltop town and mountains are in the background.
Tercentenary 2014 (97)
Purchased for Cardiff Museum, 1901
Unsigned, undated, no inscription
This painting has a double white ground, typical of Wilson, and the overall structure, as revealed by X-radiographs, is also convincing. The X-ray image reveals a tower centre right, subsequently painted out and some alterations to the outlines of the foreground rock and parasol. Infra-red imagery shows no signs of underdrawing. In general the evidence suggests that the painting may come from Wilson's studio and even originally from his hand.
The subject and thence the meaning remain open to multiple interpretations. Solkin memorably explained its attraction as a moral landscape by an emblematic interpretation of the Platonic philosophical concept of concordia discors, or the harmonious union of opposing elements, where 'the chaotic multiplicity of nature has yielded to the ordering hand of art.' (Solkin 1982, p. 66). He saw the inclusion of monks on the promontory as reassurance of a world anchored in divinely ordained harmony and reinforcing the moral certitude and authority of the patrician class who patronised the artist.
D344 Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), Banks of the Tiber 1757, Rhode Island Museum of Art, School of Design, Providence
E17 James Roberts after Wilson, The White Monk (Untitled), The British Museum
E17A James Roberts after Wilson, The White Monk (Untitled), National Museum Wales, Cardiff
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P145 Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - II, The Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation, Houston
P145A Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - II, National Museum Wales, Cardiff
P145B Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - II, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton
P146 Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - III, Private Collection
P146A Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - III, Gemaldegalerie Alta Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
P146B Richard Wilson (1713/14-1782), The White Monk - III, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
P147 Studio of Wilson, The White Monk - IV, Royal Academy of Arts, London
P147A Ascribed to Wilson, The White Monk - IV (Italian Landscape, with white Monk), Museums Sheffield
As noted by Postle, Wilson in this composition establishes a characteristic contrast between the constrictions of organised religion - the figure in grey appears to be flagellating the monk in white - and the dolce far niente symbolised by the relaxed figures in the foreground. Postle also posited a more exact setting than previously acknowledged, e.g. by Constable, who recorded that it had sometimes been identified as Tivoli or a lower part of the Aniene gorge. He proposed the upper Aniene valley, looking east towards the Prenestini mountains and the rocky outcrops of Mentorella and Guadagnolo. This is an area associated historically with a chain of Benedictine monasteries, thus providing context for the presence of monks on the promontory. The White Monk was the most frequently repeated of all Wilson's compositions, a classic 'good breeder' as the artist described them (Wright 1824, p. 33). In this first of three main variants of the composition, two figures are shown seated under the parasol and there is a sapling behind and to the left of the trees at the right. The present work is stylistically datable among the earliest and is also among the most highly finished. It is closely linked to a studio painting without the figures by the parasol, recently attributed to William Hodges by Jonathan Yarker (Royal Academy of Arts, London, 03/1083) without the figures by the parasol.

The popular title, The White Monk, was applied first to a print made from a different version of the composition, then belonging to Lady Ford and published in Hastings 1825.
The Connoisseur, April 1923; WGC, p. 228 under pl. 122b; Wilson and Europe 2014 (97)
The large number of known versions of The White Monk confirm it as one of Wilson's most popular pictures - well over 30 survive, including those made by studio assistants and copyists. All seem to have been executed in Britain after the painter's return from Italy in 1757 and most of them after 1765, when an engraving was published by James Roberts. Nevertheless the composition does not seem to have been exhibited.
Kate Lowry has noted: Linen canvas. Glue relined. Double layer of commercially-prepared white ground. The X-ray image reveals a tower centre right, subsequently painted out by the artist and some alteration to the outlines of the foreground rock and the umbrella. The IR image shows no evidence of underdrawing.